C++ (pronounced as cee plus plus, ) is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing the facilities for low-level memory manipulation. It is designed with a bias toward system programming (e.g., for use in embedded systems or operating system kernels), with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design requirements. C++ has also been found useful in many other contexts, including desktop applications, servers (e.g. e-commerce, web search or SQL servers), performance-critical applications (e.g. telephone switches or space probes), and entertainment software. C++ is a compiled language, with implementations of it available on many platforms and provided by various organizations, including the FSF, LLVM, Microsoft and Intel. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), with the latest (and current) standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2014 as ISO/IEC 14882:2014 (informally known as C++14). The C++ programming language was initially standardised in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, which was then amended by the C++03, ISO/IEC 14882:2003, standard. The current C++14 standard supersedes these and C++11, with new features and an enlarged standard library. Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs, starting in 1979, who wanted an efficient flexible language (like the C language), which also provided high-level features for program organization. Many other programming languages have been influenced by C++, including C#, Java, and newer versions of C (after 1998).